Muscle Marinade (27 Servings)
Manufactured By: Purus Labs
USPS (APO/FPO, PO Box, International, Domestic), FedEx Ground/Express (Domestic, International)
Muscle Marinade: High Intensity Excersise & Acute Excercise Recovery!
The preworkout category has long been riddled with ineffective, underdosed products lacking scientific validation. Companies do zero research yet pump tons of marketing dollars into convincing consumers their product is the best available. Typically, they design lengthy and purposely confusing nutrition panels, haphazardly concoct pixie dust proprietary blends masking their cheap formulas, and load half the container with filler attempting to fool consumers into thinking they are getting more.
Marketing does not propel or sustain Purus Labs' products; Efficacy and Results do.
Dietary supplements are big business in the United States. According to Nutrition Business Journal, consumer sales of dietary supplements grew almost 7% to $25 billion in 2008 and are expected to continue growing despite current poor economic conditions. While this number represents sales across all channels, it is evident that sport/exercise performance-enhancing supplements represent a large portion of these sales. This assertion is well-supported by the widespread use of dietary supplements (~90%) amongst athletes (Erdman et al., 2007; Froiland et al., 2004). While several classes of sport supplements are currently available and extensively used, those that appear to be most commonly used include pre, intra, and post workout drinks.
PRE WORKOUT DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
Although other supplement classes may have some merit in their own regard, it is generally well accepted that the pre workout supplement/drink is an absolute “must have” for all serious athletes, bodybuilders in particular. Such drinks are typically purchased in powder form, mixed with water to taste, and consumed 20-30 minutes prior to strenuous exercise. Most products contain a mixture of stimulants (caffeine being most common), certain amino acids (such as arginine—as discussed in more detail below as related to nitric oxide), performance-enhancing agents (such as creatine), some so-called “novel” ingredients usually included at insanely low dosages and hidden within a “proprietary blend” to beef up the label panel, and a cheap carbohydrate filler (usually maltodextrin). The interesting thing to consider about this class of dietary supplement (and many supplements for that matter), is that there does exist scientific evidence to support the use of some ingredients found within the pre workout products currently available. However, because so many companies are more concerned about including a long list of ingredients on their label panel in favor of a few scientifically supported ingredients that actually do something beneficial (in human subjects for that matter) and making a greater profit rather than producing a quality product (with some exceptions), most products eventually turn into a container of maltodextrin and caffeine with 50 other ingredients provided at such a low dosage that they could not possibly provide any benefit to the consumer (even when used at the 2-3 scoop dosing level—an absolute necessity for most products despite claiming a serving size of 1 scoop). Take a careful look at many such labels and see for yourself. The unfortunate reality is that if certain ingredients were actually provided within each product at dosages that were proven to be efficacious (based on clinical studies in human subjects), pre workout products would likely be an extremely valuable tool in the dietary supplement arsenal, rather than simply a stimulant-loaded placebo. The section below discusses this in some detail.
What to Include
The most crucial decision in developing a new dietary supplement is what to include within the actual finished product. In a well thought out plan, hundreds of hours can be spent reviewing the available scientific literature in an attempt to identify ingredients of interest for inclusion within the finished product. The process of product formulation should ideally involve reviewing scientific abstracts, attending presentations at scientific and industry-focused meetings, retrieving and evaluating full text scientific manuscripts, discussing data with chemists and technical support staff working for companies selling ingredients of interest, conversing with investigators actually conducting the research, self-using of and experimenting with ingredients of interest, and/or designing studies and actually conducting clinical trials with yourself as the principal investigator (assuming you have the expertise and resources to do this). All of the above steps were thoroughly exhausted by PURUS LABS™ and colleagues over the course of a six month period in formulating Muscle Marinade™.
Ingredients Tested in Human Subjects
In regards to the above, it is imperative that the majority of chosen ingredients have been investigated within human subjects who received the ingredient via oral ingestion and at a dosage similar to that provided within the finished product of sale. Although some ingredients may meet these criteria, a decision not to include them may still be rendered for other reasons (as discussed in some detail below). The two most common reasons for this decision are: 1) the overall effects of the ingredient may be physiologically negligible, albeit of statistical significance; and/or 2) the subject population in the research study may not be representative of the product’s target market (e.g., elderly heart failure patients used in research study; product marketed to young, healthy bodybuilders). Under such circumstances, it is important that the formulation team make an educated and informed decision regarding the use of such ingredients. Alternatively, if a novel ingredient is identified and has yet to receive a great deal of attention from the scientific community (e.g., perhaps one obscure study has been done) but appears to have excellent potential based on anecdotal reports, this may be considered for inclusion aftercareful review. However, use of such ingredients should clearly not be the norm, as objective and independent scientific data should ultimately drive the development of any new dietary supplement. If the above plan is stringently adhered to, it is certainly possible to develop a product that is scientifically sound, will provide for the desired effects, and will likely yield results for most individuals who choose to use it (see the section on Muscle Marinade™ below for ingredients that meet these criteria for inclusion within a pre workout product). Unfortunately, the more commonly used alternative to this multi-component plan is to simply look at your competitor’s label and use what they use. Muscle Marinade™ exclusively uses only ingredients with proven effects noted in human clinical research studies coupled with strong anecdotal evidence within human subjects.
What not to Include
While the list of what to include in a pre workout product is far from extensive, the list of what not to include is indeed much longer. At PURUS LABS™, the rationale for not including certain ingredients is based largely on one simple fact: There exists absolutely no scientific studies or anecdotal reports obtained from human subjects pertaining to said ingredient of interest. The fact that PURUS LABSTM only considers information gleaned from human subjects is important, as many ingredients contained within the majority of pre workout products have only been investigated in cell culture with the ingredient simply being added to the incubation medium. The research ends there without even the inclusion of animal studies indicating a benefit. This being the case, how can a company feel confident they have any idea of the correct dosing of such an ingredient (something that can carefully be calculated if animal data are available) or that the ingredient would do anything remotely similar to what they are claiming? The answer is simple—these companies are merely guessing! Of course, it is possible (but not probable) that some of these novel ingredients may actually provide a benefit, but the studies ideally need to be done before people should be making such ridiculous claims. At the very least, the ingredient needs to be provided to human subjects in oral form at the recommended dosage for an assessment in a “non-scientific environment” (e.g., field testing in the gym). Considering the above and having spent countless hours reviewing the scientific findings and anecdotal reports (or lack thereof) related to the ingredients contained within several pre workout supplements currently being sold on the market today, I can say with confidence that not only are there no human data to support the inclusion of many of these ingredients, but there exists little to no biochemical rationale as to why many of these ingredients would be included within the product in the first place. It all goes back to companies just wanting to beef up their label panel for marketing purposes regardless of an ingredient’s efficacy. This is especially true when considering the ridiculously low dosage used of most ingredients, coupled with the fact that oral intake will likely render much of the ingredient inactive once it reaches the gut.
Ingredients with Little Scientific Rationale
Regarding the above, a great example of this industry foolishness over the past 5 years is the hype surrounding ingredients touted to increase the gaseous molecule known as nitric oxide (NO). While NO is indeed an important signaling molecule promoting vasodilation by acting on vascular smooth muscle (Maiorana et al., 2003) and mediating increased blood flow at rest (Hickner et al., 1997) and during exercise (Gilligan et al., 1994), there exists no direct evidence that increasing NO is associated with improved exercise performance (Bloomer et al., 2009; In press). Companies claiming insane exercise intensity and muscle pumps with use of their pre workout products due to the supposed NO increase have no evidence to back their claims: I base this assertion on the fact that if companies actually had such evidence, they would certainly feature it in their marketing pieces. All of the advertising, marketing, testimonials, and endorsements are mere hype. Granted, they may mention a few references pertaining to a certain NO precursor such as L-arginine, but such studies often have absolutely nothing to do with the product of sale or to the claim being made.
Ingredients with Little Physiological Effect (despite a statistically significant effect) or No Direct Data Related to the Outcome Variable of Interest
Aside from human evidence, it is important to consider what overall benefit an ingredient will lend to the product’s desired effect. For example, some ingredients may have been studied in both humans and animals and may have been reported to increase or decrease a certain variable thought to be linked to improved physical performance (e.g., increased catecholamine release, decreased cortisol, etc.). Unfortunately, many of those same studies have failed to actually measure exercise performance variables and merely speculate that because one specific variable was altered, exercise performance would then also be improved. Such speculation is rampant within the sport supplement field and is not grounded in firm scientific process. Unless more work is done with the particular ingredient of interest that includes exercise performance as the chief outcome variable, companies should either not include the ingredient within the finished product or should temper their outlandish claims for that ingredient. Of course, doing so would limit the company’s ability to develop their misleading marketing pieces.
Ingredients which are Cost Prohibitive
It should be stated up front that PURUS LABS™ is unaware of any single ingredient, outside of those already included within Muscle Marinade™ that has been reported in the scientific literature to result in such a significant impact on physical performance or recovery that it absolutely must be included within a pre workout dietary supplement independent of cost. With that understanding, a final consideration of what not to include within a finished product is the actual price of a particular ingredient. That is, some ingredients may have shown promise in human clinical trials, but the reality is no company can realistically afford to include it within a finished product due to industry pre-established end consumer pricing parameters. The way around this is to hide the ingredient within a proprietary blend, use it at a dosage that is so insignificant that it might as well not be included at all, and then market it as though it delivers “drug like” effects. Make no mistake about it; this happens all the time in the dietary supplement industry.
INTRODUCING MUSCLE MARINADE™
Muscle Marinade™ represents a true breakthrough in the supplement industry with a specific focus on pre workout nutrition. As outlined above, Muscle Marinade™ was engineered using a detailed, systematic, and scientifically sound approach including only those ingredients supported by peer-reviewed and published scientific data in human subjects (in addition to strong anecdotal evidence) and included at the dosage used in the clinical research studies. The ingredient matrix comprising Muscle Marinade™ addresses all components related to both exercise performance and exercise recovery. Performance-related factors include mind/ muscle stimulation and energy production, hydrogen ion buffering, electrolyte balancing and hydration, and enhancement of muscle power and endurance. Recovery-related factors include insulin release and nutrient shuttling, cortisol reduction, protein anabolism, enhancement of cellular immunity, and improved health and antioxidant defense. Collectively, the ingredients provided within Muscle Marinade™ serve a dual purpose: 1) to improve acute exercise performance and 2) to facilitate post-exercise recovery.
What Makes Muscle Marinade™ Different?
As stated above, unlike other products within the pre workout category, Muscle Marinade™ contains only those ingredients supported by peer-reviewed and published scientific data in human subjects, in addition to anecdotal evidence for effect. Additionally, all ingredients included are at dosages used in the clinical research studies and are fully disclosed on the nutrition panel either by individual ingredient or by the specific ingredient class. While the actual number of ingredients contained within Muscle Marinade™ is lower than most other pre workout products on the market, it is important to note that the gram amount of active ingredients is much higher than most other products in this class. After all, as established throughout this paper, “quality and then quantity” of effective ingredients is much more important than sheer quantity of random individual ingredients. What good does it do to add 50 mg of a proven effective ingredient when the clinical studies report an effect only when used at 1000 mg? For many companies it increases the number of ingredients on the nutrition panel and allows them to hype the ingredient based on the original research using the effective dosage. Likewise, what good does it do to add 2000 mg of an absolutely useless ingredient that has been shown time and time again to have no impact on exercise performance or recovery, or that has never been tested at all for that purpose? For many companies it not only increases the number of ingredients on the nutrition panel but it also increases the gram weight of the serving, and hence the weight of the container. These companies bank on the fact that the consumers will do no real research of their own and instead be naively overwhelmed by a lengthy and confusing nutrition panel, a “heavy jug”, and fancy marketing within the major magazines. Such practices are commonplace within the sport supplement industry and, for these aforementioned reasons, give sport nutrition supplements a bad name.
Creatine is a naturally occurring nitrogenous organic compound produced in the human body from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine. While production occurs primarily in the kidney and liver, creatine is transported in the blood and taken up by other tissues (skeletal muscle primarily). To date, aside from carbohydrate, creatine is likely the most well-researched sport supplement in history. In fact, a PubMed search performed on 11/12/09 using the term “creatine and exercise” returned 3217 articles, while the term “creatine and exercise performance” returned 588 articles. Clearly, this is a well-researched ingredient and is thought to pose no adverse effects to healthy individuals (Poortmans and Francaux, 2000).
Much discussion exists related to the optimal form of creatine to be used. While creatine monohydrate is certainly the most well-researched and most common form available, other forms such as creatine ethyl ester (CEE), di-creatine malate, tri-creatine citrate, creatine gluconate, creatine taurinate, creatine pyruvate, creatine l-pyroglutamate, and “pH balanced” creatine among others are currently marketed throughout the sport supplement industry. In addition, some companies are now using an agent known as creatinol-O-phosphate within their products. Although this agent is not technically creatine, some companies proceed to falsely market it as a super-creatine. Most reports for COP were published in the late 1970s in the journal entitled Arzneimittelforschung, and most studies focus on cardiac function with COP. A PubMed search indicates that there is only one study dealing with physical performance (Nicaise, 1975) and included 50 female in-patients ranging in age from 58-96 years. Patients were treated intramuscularly and intravenously (not orally) with 2 ampoules of 500 mg each of COP. Muscular strength was then measured by having women squeeze a bulb in each hand 5 times. Results were of statistical significance but were rather meaningless from a physiological perspective (e.g., sum of 85.86 vs. 90.40 (kg/cm2)10-1 for placebo and intravenous COP, respectively; sum of 82.00 vs. 88.60 (kg/cm2)10-1 for placebo and intramuscular COP, respectively). Perhaps companies have other data to support their use of COP in their products (although they must be quite obscure, because these are not readily available via PubMed). If companies are basing their use of COP on the particular study described above and assuming that because intramuscular or intravenous COP increased hand strength to a minor extent in elderly in-patient women that oral intake of COP will lead to increased strength in young healthy men and women, they really need to reevaluate their formulation guidelines or do some real applied research using this ingredient. Inclusion of COP within a formula designed for young healthy men and women based on the data presented above is an absolute joke. Unfortunately, this is no exception in this industry.
Oral supplementation with creatine has been reported to substantially elevate the creatine content of human skeletal muscle. The most common dosage schedule in research studies has included a “loading” phase of 20 grams per day taken in 4 dosages of 5 grams each for a period of 5-7 days. Following this, creatine saturation in skeletal muscle can be maintained at a daily dosage as low as 2-5 grams for most individuals (Preen et al., 2003), although the International Society of Sport Nutrition (ISSN) has recommended a daily intake as high as 0.1 gram/kg body mass/day (Kerksick et al., 2008). As with all dietary supplements, individual needs may vary. As mentioned above, it has been suggested that creatine ingestion proximate to resistance exercise may be more beneficial for increasing muscle mass and strength than ingestion at times distant to the exercise session, possibly due to increased blood flow and therefore increased transport of creatine to skeletal muscle (Candow and Chilibeck, 2008). Hence, inclusion of creatine within a pre workout supplement appears logical, and this is why creatine is contained within Muscle Marinade™.
Beta alanine, also referred to as 3-aminopropanoic acid, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid. Although initially discovered over 100 years ago, research with beta alanine pertaining to exercise performance in human subjects is relatively new, with the first scientific paper published just a few years ago. The plasma concentration of beta alanine is significantly and rapidly elevated following oral intake of beta alanine ranging from 20-40 mg/kg body mass (Harris et al., 2006). Moreover, the muscle carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine) concentration, comprised of both beta alanine and histidine, is significantly increased when beta alanine is provided at a dosage of 3-6 grams per day (Harris et al., 2006). Carnosine helps to stabilize muscular pH by acting as a buffer for hydrogen ions that are released as a result of high intensity exercise. While not all studies have reported positive findings, the majority of work involving beta alanine supplementation indicates a significant performance-enhancing effect with regards to high intensity exercise.
Betaine (chemically known as 2-(Trimethylammonio) ethanoic acid, hydroxide, inner salt) is an osmolyte (i.e., protects the cells against dehydration), an antioxidant agent, as well as a methyl group donor serving a chief purpose of lowering homocysteine (Olthof and Verhoef, 2005), a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Boushey et al., 1995). The B-vitamins folic acid (B9), B12, and B6 are often used for this same purpose of lowering homocysteine. As a methyl group donor, betaine has a potential effect on creatine biosynthesis by providing a methyl group to guanidinoacetate via methionine that can synthesize creatine in skeletal muscle (du Vigneaud et al., 1946).
Commonly referred to as caffeine, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is very well studied in relation to exercise. Findings for improved aerobic (Ganio et al., 2009) and anaerobic (Davis and Green, 2009) exercise performance are common with acute ingestion of caffeine prior to exercise (typically 30-60 minutes prior). Multiple mechanisms are associated with caffeine’s ergogenic effects including improved cognitive performance, increased catecholamine secretion and lipolysis, enhanced calcium mobilization and phosphodiesterase inhibition, enhanced Na+/K+ pump activity to enhance excitation contraction coupling, and adenosine receptor antagonism. While individual response to caffeine varies, dosages in the literature have generally ranged from 3-6 mg/kg body mass, and individuals who do not frequently use caffeine appear to respond to the greatest extent (Ganio et al., 2009).
The ingredient 2-amino-4-methylhexane is a component of geranium oil and appears to provide a sympathomimetic effect in human subjects. That is, it mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system such as the chemicals epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. In this way it may stimulate energy release and provide a feeling of euphoria. Very little is known about this ingredient, but anecdotal reports are impressive. It should be noted that this is the one ingredient contained within Muscle Marinade™ that is not yet supported by peer-reviewed published clinical data. However, a controlled laboratory study investigating the effects of 2-amino-4- methylhexane combined with caffeine on resistance exercise performance in a sample of resistance trained men was recently completed (unpublished data). The results indicate that the simple combination of 2-amino-4-methylhexane and caffeine is as effective as the top selling pre workout powders currently being sold on the sport nutrition market in terms of enhancing upperbody muscular power and endurance (using bench press throws and bench press exercise to fatigue, respectively). These findings reinforce the position of PURUS LABS™ that the correct ingredients provided at the correct dosages are much more effective than the sheer number of ingredients. That is, 2-amino-4-methylhexane and caffeine (mixed into 16 grams of maltodextrin in an attempt to match the carbohydrate content of other pre workout powders used for comparison) was similar in effectiveness as the other products which contained 35-65 individual ingredients! This is a great example of the “window dressing” hype within the sport supplement industry. It is truly a shame that most companies are more concerned with beefing up their product label with worthless ingredients used at ridiculously low dosages, rather than providing a solid dosage of real ingredients that actually have been shown in human subjects to yield an effect.
Electrolytes are ionized salts (dissociated into positive and negative ions) found within body fluids. Electrolytes serve the function of maintaining concentration and charge differences across cell membranes and are involved in neural and muscle cell functioning. In relation to dietary supplements, electrolytes are most commonly contained within sport drinks primarily for rehydration purposes and maintenance of blood flow. The chief electrolytes contained within such products appearing to have an effect on hydration status following strenuous physical exercise are sodium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium. Coupled with adequate fluid intake before, during, and following an acute exercise bout, the electrolyte mix contained with Muscle Marinade™ aids in maintaining optimal hydration. This effect may be assisted by the addition of the osmolyte betaine (as discussed above).
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids are critical to physiological function and have multiple roles within biological systems. There are both essential and non-essential amino acids; the former meaning that the body cannot synthesize these from other compounds at the level needed for normal growth; they must be supplied in the diet. Perhaps the most notable function of amino acids is to act as building blocks for proteins. Proteins are required for muscular growth and repair and are the dietary focus of most bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts. While it is well accepted that active individuals require significantly more protein than their sedentary counterparts (Rodriguez et al., 2009), an often overlooked component related to protein intake is the specific timing of amino acid ingestion in the precise combination with relation to an acute bout of resistance exercise. Specifically, several studies support the use of a precise essential amino acid mixture prior to resistance exercise. These investigations have included an oral dosage of essential amino acids equal to 6 grams, taken both with (Tipton et al., 2001) and without (Bird et al., 2006a; 2006b; 2006c) carbohydrate. Findings from such studies indicate enhanced protein synthesis with ingestion of essential amino acids before resistance exercise to a greater extent than compared to essential amino acid ingestion post-exercise (Tipton et al., 2001; Wolfe, 2001). Post-exercise insulin has also been noted to be higher following intake of an essential amino acid mixture (Bird et al., 2006b) while both 3-methylhistidine (a marker of protein breakdown) (Bird et al., 2006b) and cortisol have been noted to be lower (Bird et al., 2006c). Taken together, these results suggest an “anti-catabolic effect” of essential amino acid ingestion.
Vitamins and Minerals—Overview
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “vitamins are organic substances made by plants or animals, while minerals are inorganic elements that come from the earth. Soil and water are absorbed by plants and animals, and humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat.” While moderate levels of vitamins and minerals are necessary for normal growth, development, and metabolic processes, higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals have been shown to provide protection against various stressors. One such stressor is heavy physical exercise. In an attempt to combat the stress caused by intense physical exercise, the use of antioxidant vitamins (C and E) and minerals (zinc and selenium) as well as complementary Bvitamins (B6, B9, and B12) may be considered.
Vitamins and Minerals—Ascorbic Acid
Ascorbic acid, commonly known as vitamin C, is a water soluble vitamin with multiple physiological properties. It is one of the most well-researched antioxidants, particularly related to exercise-induced free radical production. When free radical production exceeds the body’s antioxidant defense mechanisms (by way of both endogenous antioxidant enzymes/thiols and exogenous antioxidant vitamins/minerals consumed through dietary sources) a condition referred to as oxidative stress may occur. Oxidative stress ultimately has the potential to damage cellular structures including phospholipid membranes, protein, mitochondria, and DNA (Valko et al., 2007). While a low level of free radical production is actually beneficial and necessary for normal physiological function, excessive radical production, which is common with strenuous physical exercise (Bloomer, 2008), can directly impair muscle contractile function and force. This may occur via defects in excitation-contraction coupling (Goldhaber and Qayyum, 2000) and lead to greater fatigue rates in skeletal muscle (Juel, 2006). An attempt to curtail this impairment is generally the rationale for inclusion of supplemental antioxidant vitamins/minerals for athletes.
Vitamins and Minerals—d-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E)
The lipid soluble vitamin referred to as alpha tocopherol works in conjunction with vitamin C (as well as other antioxidants such as selenium, zinc, and glutathione) in a process known as redox cycling. These antioxidants maintain each other in their reduced and active form. For this reason, inclusion of an antioxidant “complex” within a dietary supplement is most appropriate. Alpha tocopherol is typically used to denote vitamin E due to the fact that alpha tocopherol is the only form of vitamin E that is actively maintained in the body. However, it should be mentioned that a more correct depiction of vitamin E is the inclusion of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherols and tocotrienols (mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols). While results are mixed, some evidence indicates that the combination of all may best produce an antioxidant effect. Regardless, one finding related to vitamin E is common: Natural vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) is better absorbed and shows higher bio-potency (1.5-2 fold) than synthetic vitamin E (dl-alphatocopherol) (Hoppe and Krennrich, 2000). This may be due to the fact that the natural form consists of one isomer; in contrast, the synthetic form contains eight different isomers of which only one is the same as the natural form. The other seven isomers have been noted to range in potency from ~20 percent to 90 percent of natural vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol). Considering this, effective dosages of natural vitamin E can be lower than synthetic and have ranged from just slightly higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of 15 mg/day to several hundred mg/day. Due to the concern over high intake of lipid soluble vitamins, in particular vitamin E (Greenberg, 2005), the fact that vitamin E as low as 60 mg/day has been reported to provide effects (Meydani et al., 1997), and that many scientists believe that a dosage of 100IU (67 mg) to 200IU (134 mg) of natural d-alpha tocopherol is adequate (although this is refuted by some reports—see Roberts et al., 2007), Muscle Marinade™ contains a judicious dosage of vitamin E thought to be both safe and clinically effective when combined with the other antioxidants within the formula.
Vitamins and Minerals—Selenium
Selenium is a trace element essential in small amounts, but like all essential elements, it is toxic at high levels. Humans and animals require selenium for the function of a number of seleniumdependent enzymes including glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Glutathione peroxidase is a collective term for a family of enzymes with antioxidant activity serving to reduce potentially damaging agents such as lipid hydroperoxides into alcohol and hydrogen peroxide into water. In this process, the important antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is “used up” and oxidized to GSSG. The enzyme known as glutathione reductase then serves to reduce glutathione back to the active form (GSH). All of this occurs along with vitamin C and vitamin E in a process known as redox cycling. In this way, these antioxidants complement one another. In conjunction with vitamin C and vitamin E, Muscle Marinade™ contains a decisive dosage of selenium, the same dosage successfully used to combat exercise-induced oxidative stress (Goldfarb et al., 2005) and muscle damage/soreness (Bloomer et al., 2004).
Vitamins and Minerals—Zinc
Zinc is an essential trace element for all life forms playing roles in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism such as growth and development, the immune response, and neurological function. In conjunction with both vitamin C and vitamin E, zinc provides antioxidant and immune support with combination therapy commonplace in the literature (Huang et al., 2006; Wintergerst et al., 2006). Studies have repeatedly shown the beneficial properties of zinc as related to both antioxidant (Mocchegiani, 2008) and immune-stimulating function (Haase and Rink, 2009; Prasad, 2008). The dosage of zinc used in many studies has ranged from 15-50 mg/day. While zinc is used in many different forms (e.g., gluconate, picolinate, methionine), zinc methionine has been reported to have the greatest antioxidant activity (Bagchi et al., 1997) and superior bioavai
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Horrible By: Lindsey
Review posted on: 2013-02-06 16:39:04 -0500
Expensive and made me spend more time in the bathroom then the gym, will not waste my money again also the crash was really bad made me feel horrible and want to sleep for days after!
Essential for the Hardcore Lifter By: Rolando
Review posted on: 2011-07-12 19:51:42 -0400
Muscle Marinade has become my all-time favorite pre-workout. My experience with pre-workouts is somewhat extensive as I've tried well over 10 pre-WO from various companies, and these are not including Jack3d clones (I know better than to shell out that much for underdosed supplements made with cheap ingredients). That aside, let me take the time to point some things out about what makes Muscle Marinade great. The caffeine/DMAA content is very strong, but this is fantastic for those of us who are either big or work out for over an hour at a time. I have tried multiple pre-workouts in the past that have helped boost me at the beginning, but then I feel completely gassed half way through my workout. This one keeps you at 100% the whole time, and you ALWAYS hit your sets till failure (read: not fatigue!). The beta-alanine is essential in pre-workouts, and if it's not in yours, toss it in the trash and buy yourself a new one. I can't comment on the betaine, but the 6g EAA is killer, and I feel this really ties everything together in this pre-workout. The 1g of Vitamin C is very welcome for us who live an active lifestyle and lift hard. Put together, Muscle Marinade turns you into a killer machine, unleashes your inner alpha-male, and helps you focus on the task at hand: showing the iron who's boss. But be careful! haha. Can't mention how many times I attempted a set way too soon while I was on this, LOL. Only downside is that the flavor is very strong (and smells pretty bad!). But honestly, even though I have to emphasize how bad it is, this is still a 5-star product for me. Additionally, I hear they have a new flavor - cherry limeade. So look out for that one, too.
Ahmed By: Angelo
Review posted on: 2010-03-25 15:34:47 -0400
My second pwo supplement ever, I've tried muscle prime but it made me sick/vomit/disgusted and crash badly.. whole day be moody and the wife would notice. THIS on the other hand gives me CONSISTENT linear energy without a crash, INSANE endurance, great focus. Definetely going to be a regular for me... just hopefully it gets cheaper and more servings. Purus labs send me free stuff :)