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EO2 VMAX by MRI:
Peak Endurance Capacity Builder!
PERFORMANCE READINESS THROUGH PROACTIVE ENDURANCE OPTIMIZATION
Athletes understand that nutrient loading is critical to performance. "Filling" muscles with hydrating fluids and energy-yielding glycogen well before an event helps to ensure peak endurance potential during the event. Of course, this strategy is nothing new - it has long been practiced by athletes of all endeavors. Now, take that basic nutrient pre-loading concept and apply it at the cellular level and you have something truly advanced and groundbreaking. It's called, EO2 VMAX™.
EO2 VMAX "tops off" your cells with science-backed ingredients that help counter mental and physical stress, build tolerance to the rigors of intense endurance training, and optimize cardiovascular and muscle function. Taken daily, EO2 VMAX promotes the body's endurance capacity for peak performance well in advance of a training session or competitive event. This is performance pre-loading at the cellular level.
This powerful, science-driven formula:
- Helps Optimize Circulation
- Supports Improved VO2 Max
- Helps Drive ATP Energy
- Muscle Recovery from Training Induced Stress
- Helps Combat Mental and Physical Fatigue
- With Powerful Antioxidants, Adaptogens and Natural Immune Defense Support
EO2 VMAX™ features key ingredients and technologies, backed by emerging scientific research, to support what endurance athletes want most - the fortitude to leave the competition in the dust.
A PREMPTIVE STRIKE ON ENDURANCE LIMITATIONS
EO2 VMAX represents a completely unprecedented approach to supporting endurance potential; daily fueling of key performance factors. In essence, the ingredients in EO2 VMAX function like a "preemptive strike" on the body's physiological endurance limitations. Each serving is fully loaded with "Advanced 7-Way Endurance Optimizing Action" to support oxygen delivery & uptake, vasodilation, stamina & endurance, stress adaptation & counter fatigue, antioxidant defense & immune support, and energy production. Now, endurance athletes can be "performance ready" from the moment they launch into training or competition.
BUILDING THE OXYGEN TRANSPORTERS
Optimal Red Blood Cell (RBC) production is a major factor in building optimal endurance capacity, and iron is critical to the process. As a component of hemoglobin in red blood cells, iron helps carry oxygen to all body cells.i However, an iron deficiency limits oxygen delivery to cells, resulting in fatigue, poor work performance, and decreased immunity.ii,iii Iron is therefore, an important nutrient for success in endurance related activities.
Here's the problem - many men and women who engage in regular, intense exercise such as jogging, competitive swimming, and cycling have marginal or inadequate iron status.iv Possible explanations for this phenomenon include increased gastrointestinal blood loss after running and a greater turnover of red blood cells. Additionally, red blood cells within the foot may rupture while running, reducing their oxygen-carrying capacity.
For these reasons, the need for iron may be 30% greater in those who engage in regular intense exercise. Therefore, ensuring athletes are iron replete is critical in helping maintain oxygen transport, endurance capacity and optimal performance.v In fact, a research study suggests that iron depleted (but not anemic) women athletes who took a daily iron supplement experienced a 10% improvement in their endurance performance after four weeks of training compared to placebo.*vi*
To be sure, optimal RBC formation requires more than iron alone. Authoritative sources have noted that Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, and boron all play a role in the formation of hemoglobin. For example, riboflavin contributes to iron absorption and utilization, and to an increase in the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells. Vitamin E is important to the integrity of the red blood cell membrane.vii Furthermore, dietary boron has been suggested to affect indices associated with erythropoietic (supports RBC formation) or hematopoietic (supports formation of blood cell components) activity.viii A recent review study of the above trial surmised, boron supplementation increased total hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and content.ix,x*
Bottom line - EO2 VMAX was expertly formulated with the right blend of ingredients that support optimal formation and integrity of oxygen-carrying red blood cells.
FUELING THE "MAX" IN VO2 MAX
Before we get into the advanced concepts that reveal how EO2 VMAX helps to fuel VO2 max, we should first define exactly what VO2 max is. First, it may help to know that VO2 max goes by many other names, including maximal oxygen uptake and maximal aerobic capacity. Basically we are talking about the capacity of one's body to absorb and utilize maximal oxygen during training. So, as you may have guessed, the V stands for volume, and the O2 stands for oxygen. Obviously, ensuring peak VO2 max is a major factor in supporting endurance potential.
EO2 VMAX features a well-studied compound suggested to support endurance-specific physiology; sodium phosphate. Controlled clinical trials support the ability of sodium phosphate to help enhance endurance performance, oxygen uptake and aerobic response to exercise. In fact, supplementing with bioavailable phosphorus/phosphate for three days prior to exercise may help improve both sprinting and endurance performance in humans.
Recent well-controlled research studies reported that sodium phosphate supplementation of 4 g/day (the amount in a daily serving of EO2 VMAX) for 3 days improved the oxygen energy system in endurance tasks.*xi,xii,xiii Research suggests a number of positive findings that show an enhanced maximal oxygen consumption,xi,xiii an improved anaerobic thresholdxii,xiii and greater time-trial/simulated race performancesxiv when oral sodium phosphate has been provided in split doses over a 3-6 day period.
How sodium phosphate supports maximal oxygen consumption is due to a compound called 2,3-DPG. To state the function of 2,3-DPG bluntly - it causes oxygen to "jump off" of red blood cells for uptake into tissues. Simply stated, hemoglobin is what "holds" oxygen to red blood cells and 2,3-DPG is what makes it "release" from red blood cells. In more technical terms, 2,3-DPG causes oxygen dissociation from RBCs.
Red blood cell 2,3-DPG combines with hemoglobin resulting in a decreased affinity for oxygen. With more oxygen being delivered to muscle tissue through the blood, there is a subsequent increase in the ability of an individual to perform work. For our purposes, "the ability of an individual to perform work" is synonymous with "endurance capacity."
EO2 VMAX is scientifically engineered to promote optimal oxygen transfer from red blood cells into working muscles.
FILLING UP THE "CELLULAR CURRENCY" RESERVES
One of the key reasons why supporting oxygen transport and uptake is so critical to performance has to do with adenosine 5'-triphosphate, better known as ATP.
ATP has often been called the body's "cellular currency" with the critical function of transferring energy (cellular fuel) to every cell of the human body.xvi Bottom line, ATP is what drives muscle function... and its rate of turnover is extremely high. This is problematic for performance as only a few ounces of ATP are present in the body at any given time. Even a human at rest consumes one half of his/her weight of ATP daily.xviii Imagine how much more ATP an active endurance athlete requires.
Needless to say, ATP stores must be constantly replenished. This is the job of the mitochondria; bi-layered organelles sometimes called the "powerhouses of cells." The synthesis of ATP by working mitochondria requires the presence of oxygen, magnesium, substrate (carbohydrate, free fatty acids, some amino acids), ADP and inorganic phosphate.xvii,xviii Researchers have also indicated the central role that malate plays in ATP production.76,99
Here's where things get a bit "techie." The synthesis of ATP from ADP plus a high-energy phosphate group is called oxidative phosphorylation. This process is dependent on the energy flow through the electron transport chain via electron carriers embedded in the lining of mitochondria. To make this a bit simpler, think of the electron transport chain as working something like a battery. In batteries, the difference between the negative and positive charges creates an energy flow (when the circuit is complete). The "energy flow" in mitochondria is created by protons, which supply the positive charge, and electrons that provide the negative charge.
The Electron Transport Chain transfers protons (+) from the Krebs Cycle across protein structures embedded in the inner membrane of mitochondria. The protons flow to ATP Synthase via the transfer of electrons (-) between these structures.
The protons then flow through ATP Synthase where their energy is used to bind phosphates to ADP to form high energy ATP.
Riboflavin and niacin are two of the B Vitamins directly involved in ATP synthesis: they are converted to the major electron carriers NADH and FADH2.xvii They "receive" electrons from coenzyme Q that were acquired during fatty acid and glucose metabolism. At the same time, coenzyme Q transfers protons outside the inner mitochondrial membrane (remember mitochondria are bi-layered), creating a proton gradient across that membrane. The energy released when the protons flow back into the mitochondrial interior is used to form ATP.xix*
If the details of ATP production seem complicated, don't worry - we've got it covered. EO2 VMAX features an ATP-fueling "cocktail" of key B-Vitamins, Coenzyme Q10, magnesium, malic acid (malate) and sodium phosphate (a source of phosphates).
EO2 VMAX is designed to help build your ATP stores so you can focus on achieving "next level" performance.
ADAPT OR GET OUT OF THE RACE
Without question, endurance training and competition is incredibly taxing on the body. For endurance athletes, there are only two options; succumb to the stress, or adapt to improve performance capacity. Given a choice, any self-respecting athlete would choose the latter option. EO2 VMAX, with its Metabolic Training Regulators, provides that choice.
Metabolic Training Regulators are powerful adaptogens, a "new class of metabolic regulators which increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors."xx,xxi Now for the "non-tech" description; adaptogens help the body to overcome stress - be it mental or physical. For the record, adaptogens are naturally occurring phytochemicals found in a broad range of plants and fungi. Two very well researched of these adaptogens, Rhodiola Rosea and Cordyceps Sinensis, are key ingredients in the EO2 VMAX formulation.
Rhodiola Rosea is an adaptogenic that, for quite some time, was a tightly kept Russian secret used to support positive mood, energy, and cognitive function. Currently there are over 170 published studiesxxii,xxiii on R. rosea that document its mood supporting, work performance enhancing, sleep promoting and fatigue fighting properties. At least four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have found that varying doses (i.e., 50 mg twice daily, 170 mg daily, 370-555 mg daily) of a standardized extract of R. rosea can support a healthy stress response and promote mental and physical energy during periods of sleep disruption. Controlled research suggests Rhodiola rosea may help athletes adapt during exercise as measured by improvements in oxygen consumption and reductions in time to exhaustion.*55
Cordyceps sinensis is a research-backed, adaptogenic that has been used in humans for centuries as a tonic for supporting performance and vitality. At least one preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study examined the anti-fatigue effectiveness during exhaustive running exercise of human 10 healthy male runners that ingested 240 mg of cordyceps for one week experienced significantly more efficient cardiovascular-respiratory responses in their metabolism; and blood concentrations of lactate acid, catecholamine, and glucose decreased significantly during these exercise loads than those of placebo.*xxiv These results indicate that ingestion with Cordyceps sinensis extract may promote energy productive metabolism and anti-fatigue function.
EO2 VMAX offers full, research-backed levels of these powerful adaptogens to help build tolerance for high-intensity endurance training.
FORTIFYING INTERNAL DEFENSES
The formula provides a variety of well-known antioxidant nutrients known to help support the body's antioxidant defense and cellular protection mechanisms. Free radicals are formed primarily in the body during normal metabolism and also upon exposure to environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke or pollutants.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral that incorporates into proteins to make selenoproteins which are important antioxidant enzymes.xxv
Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin and a highly effective antioxidantxxvi indispensable for protecting molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species that can be generated during normal metabolism and exercise as well as through exposure to toxins and pollutants.xxvii
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. This is a tremendously beneficial attribute as fats, which are an integral part of all cell membranes, are vulnerable to destruction through oxidation by free radicals. Therefore, alpha-tocopherol is uniquely suited to intercept free radicals that contribute towards lipid destruction. Aside from maintaining the integrity of cell membranes throughout the body, alpha-tocopherol also protects the fats in low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidation.xxvi
Vitamin A is converted from ß-carotene, which researchers report deactivate reactive oxygen species (ROS) (in particular singlet oxygen and lipid radicals) and to reduce lipid peroxidation (free radicals attacking lipids in cell membranes).xxviii,xxix ROS are oxygen-containing, highly reactive molecules produced during metabolism. Intense exercise promotes an increase in ROS, resulting in what is known as "oxidative stress." ß-carotene and vitamin A act in tandem with vitamin C in order to protect cells against ROS.xxx
Vitamin B6 anti-oxidative properties have been reported in multiple studies. Recently, one researcher reported that Vitamin B6 may be an even a more effective antioxidant than Vitamin C.xxxi In all studies Vitamin B6 was shown to suppress oxidative stress.xxxii,xxxiii
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from damage by free radicals. It also helps restore other antioxidants, particularly vitamin E. Specifically, in the cellular mitochondria, coenzyme Q10 can protect membrane proteins and DNA from the oxidative damage that accompanies lipid peroxidation.xxxiv
A central factor in the endurance-building power of EO2 VMAX is nitric oxide-fueled, circulation optimization. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a valuable role in adaptation to physical exercise by modulating blood flow, muscular contraction, glucose uptake, and in the control of cellular respirationxxxv (ATP energy production).
The cornerstone of NO production is the amino acid L-Arginine (L-ARG). In vascular endothelial cells (cells of blood vessels), nitric oxide synthase enzymes (NOS) convert L-ARG to nitric oxide (also known as endothelium-derived relaxation factor). In case you've been out of the supplement industry loop for the past decade, here is a quick review of nitric oxide. NO triggers the smooth muscles of the vascular system to relax, promoting vasodilation. In turn, vasodilation (the widening of blood channels) allows for optimal circulation.
As you can imagine, the performance implications of "optimal circulation" is nothing short of impressive. In fact, researchers have determined that changes in NO production can affect vasodilatation and blood pressure,xxxvi,xxxvii,xxxviii,xxxix,xl and interventions that influence NO bioavailability (targeted ingredient applications) can also alter the O2 cost of exercise in humans.xli,xlii,xliii,xliv,xlv In layman's terms - researchers have found that nitric oxide not only supports optimal blood flow, but oxygen utilization as well.
EO2 VMAX leverages targeted ingredient applications to help fuel performance-supporting NO production. Three forms of L-Arginine and Arginine precursors help to get the process engaged with the assistance of Vitamin C. This is a truly dynamic blend. Research indicates that the combination of Vitamin C and L-Arginine works synergistically to enhance nitric oxide production, through NOS gene expression.xlvi
The ability of Vitamin C to enhance vasodilation is likely attributable to its antioxidant actions, including scavenging intracellular superoxide, direct reduction of nitrite to NO, and recycling of Vitamin E.xlvii,xlviii A recent meta-analysis of 29 randomized, controlled trials found a significant reduction in blood pressure with a median dose of 500 mg/day in both healthy and hypertensive individuals further supporting its circulatory and vascular benefits.xlix
IT'S ALL ABOUT TAKING CONTROL
Don't leave your capacity for endurance performance to chance; take control of your endurance destiny with EO2 VMAX. EO2 VMAX features key ingredients and technologies, fully backed by emerging scientific research, to support what endurance athletes want most - the fortitude to leave the competition in the dust.
Take a proactive approach to building your body's "endurance readiness" with EO2 VMAX.
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